European emission standards for solid fuel stoves 

The combustion of solid fuels is always accompanied by the production of pollutants, and the general aim should be to reduce their amount to an acceptable level. One of the tools to reduce the amount of discharged pollutants is the legislative requirements for combustion equipment and fuel, which are applied when the combustion equipment is placed on the market with the participation of a notified entity, or during their operation. The article deals with the valid requirements for emissions of pollutants and the efficiency of combustion equipment, which are legally required both throughout the EU, as well as other requirements that are given in some individual countries. The European leaders in this area are represented by Germany and Austria. Since the individual limits are expressed in different units and under different conditions (O2 reference content), this post recalculates the limits in order to compare them and answer the question of how they differ and where the requirements are most stringent.

Note: in the next part of the text, the unit m3N is given in some cases - it represents the volume in cubic meters at 101 325 Pa and 0 °C - under so-called normal conditions.

EUROPEAN EMISSION LIMITS IN GENERAL

According to the standards, appliances must comply with emission limits only at rated power (except for appliances burning wood pellets, which have different limits at reduced power). The table of emission limits is marked as tab. No. 1. The table also shows the minimum efficiency values for the given appliances.

Tab. No. 1 General emission limits, EU

standardsubject of standards 1)limit for CO 2)
[%]
limit for CO 2)
[mg/m3N]
min. efficiency
[%]
EN 13240fireplace stove1,012 50050
EN 13229fireplace inserts1,012 50030
tiled stoves and built-in decorative appliances < 15 kW0,22 50075
EN 14785appliances burning wood pellets0,04 / 0,06 3)500 / 750 3)75 / 70 3)
EN 15250storage stove0,33 75070
EN 12815cookers1,012 50060
EN 15821solid fuel sauna stove (wooden logs)1,012 50050
1) listed the most common appliances falling under the given standard
2) at reference O2 content = 13%
3) values at reduced power

In general, these emission limits are moderate compared to boiler requirements [15] and minimum efficiencies are relatively low. The problem with efficiency occurs in the case of fireplace inserts (hereinafter referred to as KV). These are intended for the enclosure, or are connected to an accumulation element through which the flue gases pass. For the correct functioning of the unit (CH + storage element) it is therefore necessary that the flue gases behind the CH have a high temperature - the CH itself then has low efficiency. However, manufacturers offer (apparently out of fear that customers would not buy their products) KVs with an efficiency of over 70%. Manufacturers are often pushed towards this trend by stricter requirements in EU countries, in which they would not succeed with products that have lower efficiencies than required by local regulations.

It should be noted that the building's need for heat is not the same throughout the heating season. For fireplace inserts with a water exchanger, a storage tank for heating water is a possible solution, which allows the fireplace insert to work at the ideal rated output. When power is modulated (to a so-called reduced power), higher emission production and lower efficiency occur. It is therefore a good idea not to oversize the stove unnecessarily and thereby achieve the greatest possible coverage of the heating season in operation at the rated output.

CZECH REPUBLIC - EMISSION LIMITS IN GENERAL

The Czech Republic adopts the limits from the above-mentioned standards. For radiant heat sources (local heaters), Act No. 201/2012 Coll. - on air protection sets out additional obligations for both manufacturers (importers) of combustion equipment and operators.

For local heaters intended for connection to a hot water central heating system (e.g. fireplace inserts or stoves with a water exchanger), the emission limits for CO and dust (TZL) apply according to Annex No. 10 of Part I and II of Act No. 201/2012 Coll. as amended by later laws. Local heaters marketed in the Czech Republic, which serve as a heat source for the hot water central heating system, must meet the requirements listed in table tab. No. 2, which are applicable in the period from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019. In essence, these are 1.38 times milder requirements for CO and dust than the requirements for boiler class 4 according to EN 303-5:2012 intended for hot water boiler.

Tab. No. 2 Minimum emission requirements for local heaters placed on the market, which serve as a heat source for a hot water central heating system with a nominal input of up to 300 kW, to be used from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 - Annex No. 10, Part II of Act No. 201/2012 Coll.

Fuel supplyFuelNominal heat input
[kW]
Emission limit values 1)
CODust (TZL)
mg/m3N při 13% O2 (mg/m3N při 10% O2)
ManualBiological / Fossil≤ 3001 200 (1 650)75 (103)
Self-actingBiological / Fossil≤ 3001 000 (1 375)60 (83)
1) Refers to dry flue gas, temperature 273.15 K, pressure 101.325 kPa and a reference oxygen content of 13% (to a reference oxygen content of 10%)

From January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2021, requirements according to Annex No. 10, Part III of Act No. 201/2012 Coll. for stationary solid fuel combustion sources defined in Article 1 of Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/1185 implementing Directive 2009/125/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the requirements for the ecodesign of solid fuel local heaters.

According to Article 1 of the regulation, the requirements apply to the following stationary combustion sources:

  • local solid fuel heaters with a nominal heat output of no more than 50 kW.

According to Article 1 of the regulation, the requirements do not apply to:

  • local solid fuel heaters that are intended only for burning non-woody biomass;
  • solid fuel local heaters designed for outdoor use only;
  • local solid fuel heaters whose direct heat output is less than 6% of the total direct and indirect heat output at the rated heat output;
  • solid fuel local heaters that are not assembled at the factory or supplied by a single manufacturer as prefabricated parts or components intended for assembly on site;
  • air heaters;
  • sauna stove.

Local heaters must meet the following emission limit values, which relate to dry flue gas, a temperature of 273 K, a pressure of 101.3 kPa and a reference oxygen content of 13%:

  1. TZL emission limit values:
    1. for heaters with an open combustion chamber, it must not exceed 50 mg.m−3N when measured by method A, or 6 g/kg (dry matter) when measured by method B;
    2. for heaters with a closed combustion chamber using solid fuels other than pressed wood in the form of pellets and from stoves must not exceed 40 mg.m−3N when measured by method A, or 5 g/kg (dry matter) when measured by method B, or 2.4 g /kg (dry matter) in the case of biomass or 5.0 g/kg in the case of solid fossil fuels when measured by method C;
    3. for heaters with a closed combustion chamber using compressed wood in the form of pellets, it must not exceed 20 mg.m−3N when measured by method A, or 2.5 g/kg (dry matter) when measured by method B3, or 1.2 g/kg (dry matter) when measured by method C.
  2. Emission limit values for gaseous organic compounds (TOC):
    1. TOC emissions from local solid fuel heaters with an open combustion chamber, from local solid fuel heaters with a closed combustion chamber using solid fuels other than pressed wood in the form of pellets and from stoves must not exceed 120 mgC.m−3N;
    2. TOC emissions from local solid fuel heaters with a closed combustion chamber using pressed wood in the form of pellets must not exceed 60 mgC.m−3N.
  3. Carbon monoxide (CO) emission limit values:
    1. for heaters with an open combustion chamber, it must not exceed 2,000 mg.m−3N;
    2. for heaters with a closed combustion chamber using solid fuels other than pressed wood in the form of pellets and from stoves must not exceed 1,500 mg.m−3N;
    3. for heaters with a closed combustion chamber using pressed wood in the form of pellets, it must not exceed 300 mg.m−3N.
  4. Emission limit values for nitrogen oxides (NOx):
    1. for solid fuel heaters with an open combustion chamber, for solid fuel heaters with a closed combustion chamber and from stoves using biomass must not exceed 200 mg.m−3N, expressed as NO2;
    2. for heaters with an open combustion chamber, from solid fuel heaters with a closed combustion chamber and from stoves using fossil solid fuels must not exceed 300 mg.m−3N, expressed as NO2.

NOTE: The requirements also apply to local heaters without a heat exchanger. These emission limit values are valid in the EU only from January 1, 2022, unlike Act No. 201/2012 Coll., which applies two years earlier. In addition, the Ecodesign Regulation [1] introduces requirements for the seasonal energy efficiency of heating from 1 January 2022:

  • the seasonal heating energy efficiency of local solid fuel heaters with an open combustion chamber must not be lower than 30%;
  • the seasonal heating energy efficiency of local solid fuel heaters with a closed combustion chamber using solid fuels other than pressed wood in the form of pellets must not be lower than 65%;
  • the seasonal heating energy efficiency of local solid fuel heaters with a closed combustion chamber using pressed wood in the form of pellets must not be lower than 79%;
  • the seasonal energy efficiency of heating stoves must not be lower than 65%.

OUR STOVES MEET ALL EMISSION LIMITS
All our offered wood stoves meet the emission limits of the European, Czech, Austrian and German emission standard BIMSchV 2 with the use of a catalyst.

  • 19 602 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    We recommend 9 kW the HEATER hot air wood stove for heating cottages or cottages, restaurants, pubs or pubs, production halls and workshops, for clubhouses, outbuildings or storage rooms, or even for living rooms and as a stylish addition to a modern house, etc. The possibility of various adjustments to the stove on request by agreement. The efficiency...

    19 602 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days
  • 26 862 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    We recommend 17 kW the HEATER hot air wood stove for heating cottages or cottages, restaurants, pubs or pubs, production halls and workshops, for clubhouses, outbuildings or storage rooms, or even for living rooms and as a stylish addition to a modern house, etc. The possibility of various adjustments to the stove on request by agreement. The efficiency...

    26 862 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days
  • 5 445 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    Heat water exchanger for 9 kW hot air wood stove HEATER with 5 kW output. The heat exchanger outlets (for water connection) are in the back of the stove. The pipe thread size is 1" (coul). For more accessories for HEATER hot air stoves, go to the accessories section, e.g. to purchase a HEATER stove stand or a HEATER hot air stove cover.

    5 445 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days
  • 32 065 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    We will make a special hot air stove of 17 kW with a hotplate to order for you. We recommend for a space of 340 m3. The efficiency of the HEATER stove is 80.9%. The possibility of various adjustments to the stove on request by agreement. We recommend the special HEATER wood-burning hot air stoves for heating cottages or cottages, restaurants, pubs or...

    32 065 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days

GERMANY - EMISSION LIMITS IN GENERAL

In Germany, the 1st BImSchV decree is valid, which adjusts (tightens) the limits for the concentration of pollutants released into the air during the operation of local solid fuel appliances.

For devices put into operation after 1 January 2015 applies the emission limits and minimum efficiencies listed in tab. No. 3 – so-called Stufe 2 (BIMSchV 2). These limits must be met by the device at nominal power.

Tab. No. 3 Requirements according to 1. BImSchV Stufe 2 for devices placed on the market 

equipmentstandarddust 1)
[mg/m3N]
CO 1)
[mg/m3N]
efficiency
[%]
interior heater without hopper (short-term combustion process)EN 13240401 25073
interior heater with hopper (long-term combustion process)EN 13240401 25070
fireplace insert operated with closed loading doorEN 13229401 25075
insert for tiled stove without hopperEN 13229401 25080
insert for tiled stove with hopperEN 13229401 25080
storage stoveEN 15250401 25075
appliances burning wood pellets without water exchangerEN 147853025085
appliances burning wood pellets with a water exchangerEN 147852025090
cooking applianceEN 12815401 50070
cooking appliance with water exchangerEN 12815401 50075
solid fuel sauna stove (wooden logs)EN 15821401 25073
1) limits are given at reference O2 = 13%
short-term combustion process = 0.75 to 1 hour between individual applications
long-term combustion process = at least 4 hours between each application

The operator must prove compliance with the limits for devices put into operation before 25 November 2009. This can be proven either by presenting a certificate from the device manufacturer or by measurements carried out by a chimney sweep. If the equipment does not meet the emission limits, it must be taken out of service or equipped with additional equipment enabling the emission limits to be met (on the date specified in the decree, depending on the age of the appliance). Regular measurement of local appliances is not carried out by the operator (it is carried out only for hot water boilers).

OUR STOVES MEET ALL EMISSION LIMITS
All our offered wood stoves meet the emission limits of the European, Czech, Austrian and German emission standard BIMSchV 2 with the use of a catalyst. 

  • 4 140 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    The catalyst is used to reduce the amount of harmful substances in the flue gas of the stove.The catalyst is distributed in the 90° elbow of the flue pipe.Flue diameter: 130 mmThis catalyst is mainly intended for the German and Austrian market. For more accessories for the HEATER hot air stove, go to the accessories section. More information about...

    4 140 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days
  • 26 862 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    We recommend 17 kW the HEATER hot air wood stove for heating cottages or cottages, restaurants, pubs or pubs, production halls and workshops, for clubhouses, outbuildings or storage rooms, or even for living rooms and as a stylish addition to a modern house, etc. The possibility of various adjustments to the stove on request by agreement. The efficiency...

    26 862 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days
  • 5 445 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    Heat water exchanger for 9 kW hot air wood stove HEATER with 5 kW output. The heat exchanger outlets (for water connection) are in the back of the stove. The pipe thread size is 1" (coul). For more accessories for HEATER hot air stoves, go to the accessories section, e.g. to purchase a HEATER stove stand or a HEATER hot air stove cover.

    5 445 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days
  • 32 065 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    We will make a special hot air stove of 17 kW with a hotplate to order for you. We recommend for a space of 340 m3. The efficiency of the HEATER stove is 80.9%. The possibility of various adjustments to the stove on request by agreement. We recommend the special HEATER wood-burning hot air stoves for heating cottages or cottages, restaurants, pubs or...

    32 065 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days

AUSTRIA - EMISSION LIMITS IN GENERAL

In Austria, emission limits are regulated by agreement 15a B-VG [14], the required values are listed in tab. No. 4 (manual fuel supply) and tab. No. 5 (automatic fuel supply). These values must be met by each combustion device (all sizes) when tested at rated output. In the case of combustion devices with a nominal output of more than 8 kW, the limits must be met not only at nominal output, but also for CO, OGC and efficiency at reduced output (50% Pjm for manually operated ones, 30% Pjm for automatically operated ones). The minimum efficiencies even for combustion equipment with a nominal output of less than 8 kW are listed in tab. No. 6.

Tab. No. 4 Requirements according to 15a B-VG, emission limits – manual fuel delivery

ParameterEmission limits [mg/MJ]
Wood fuelsOther standardized biogenic fuelsFossil fuels
Local heatersCombustion equipment connected to central heating< 50 kW nominal power> 50 kW nominal power< 50 kW nominal power> 50 kW nominal power
CO1 1005001 1005001 100500
NOx150100300300100100
OGC503050308030
Dust (TZL)353035353535

Tab. No. 5 Requirements according to 15a B-VG, emission limits – automatic fuel supply

ParameterEmission limits [mg/MJ]
Wooden pellets
Local heaters
Wood pellets
Combustion equipment connected to central heating
Other wood fuelOther standardized biogenic fuels
CO500a250a250a500a
NOx100100100300
OGC30203020
Dust (TZL)25203035
a the limit may be exceeded by 50% during the reduced power test - 30% of rated power

Tab. No. 6 Minimum efficiency requirements according to 15a B-VG

Combustion deviceEfficiency [%]
Fossil fuel stoves73
Stoves for standard biogenic fuels72
Combustion equipment for fossil and standard biogenic fuels80

OUR STOVES MEET ALL EMISSION LIMITS
All our offered wood stoves meet the emission limits of the European, Czech, Austrian and German emission standard BIMSchV 2 with the use of a catalyst.

  • 4 140 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    The catalyst is used to reduce the amount of harmful substances in the flue gas of the stove.The catalyst is distributed in the 90° elbow of the flue pipe.Flue diameter: 130 mmThis catalyst is mainly intended for the German and Austrian market. For more accessories for the HEATER hot air stove, go to the accessories section. More information about...

    4 140 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days
  • 26 862 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    We recommend 17 kW the HEATER hot air wood stove for heating cottages or cottages, restaurants, pubs or pubs, production halls and workshops, for clubhouses, outbuildings or storage rooms, or even for living rooms and as a stylish addition to a modern house, etc. The possibility of various adjustments to the stove on request by agreement. The efficiency...

    26 862 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days
  • 5 445 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    Heat water exchanger for 9 kW hot air wood stove HEATER with 5 kW output. The heat exchanger outlets (for water connection) are in the back of the stove. The pipe thread size is 1" (coul). For more accessories for HEATER hot air stoves, go to the accessories section, e.g. to purchase a HEATER stove stand or a HEATER hot air stove cover.

    5 445 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days
  • 32 065 Kč In stock / within 5 days

    We will make a special hot air stove of 17 kW with a hotplate to order for you. We recommend for a space of 340 m3. The efficiency of the HEATER stove is 80.9%. The possibility of various adjustments to the stove on request by agreement. We recommend the special HEATER wood-burning hot air stoves for heating cottages or cottages, restaurants, pubs or...

    32 065 Kč
    In stock / within 5 days

COMPARISON OF LIMITS

In order to be able to compare the emission limits valid in different countries, it is important to have these values expressed in the same units (concentration mg/m3N or emission factor mg/MJ) and also related to the same comparative conditions – reference oxygen content, dry flue gas under normal conditions. In Austria, the limits are given as an emission factor related to the energy contained in the fuel, in contrast to the Czech Republic and Germany, where the limits are given as concentrations related to the volume of dry flue gas. The comparison of the limits must therefore be carried out by conversion through the calorific value of the fuel and the amount of fumes produced by burning 1 kg of fuel.

A comparison of the limits shows a large fragmentation of the limits within the EU, which should be unified on 1/1/2022, when the EU Commission Regulation 2015/1185 on ecodesign for local heaters comes into force. Today, emissions of pollutants are monitored most comprehensively by Austria. The European standard has the least strict requirements.

For better clarity, tab. No. 7 shows a comparison of the minimum requirements for a fireplace insert with heat with a water exchanger with a nominal output of 8 kW for piece wood when it is put on the market and also during regular inspections (required by Act No. 201/2012 - on air protection and Austrian decree 15a B-VG).

Tab. No. 7 Comparison of today's and future requirements for emissions and efficiency for a specific installation of a fireplace insert with a water exchanger with a total output of 8 kW (power input 10 kW) - manual application with piece of wood

At reference O2 = 13 %Manual
Piece wood
Frequency
CO[mg/m3N]EU – EN 13229 – today12 500at certification
CR – EN 13229 – today12 500at certification
CR – Act 201/2012 Coll.upon certification and every two years of equipment review 2)
from 1. 1. 2014 to 31. 12. 20175 000
from 1. 1. 2018 to 31. 12. 20191 200
from 1. 1. 2020 to 31. 12. 20211 500
EU Regulation 2015/1185 from 1. 1. 20221 500
Germany – 1. BImSchV Stufe 2 – today1 250at certification
Austria – 15a B-VG – today716 (500) 1)upon certification + revision 2 years 
OGC[mg/m3N]EU – EN 13229 – today
CR – EN 13229 – today
CR – Act 201/2012 Coll.at certification
from 1. 1. 2020120
EU Regulation 2015/1185 from 1. 1. 2022120
Germany – 1. BImSchV Stufe 2 – today
Austria – 15a B-VG – today43 (30) 1)at certification
NOx[mg/m3N]EU – EN 13229 – today
CR – EN 13229 – today
CR – Act 201/2012 Coll.at certification
from 1. 1. 2020200
EU Regulation 2015/1185 from 1. 1. 2022200
Germany – 1. BImSchV Stufe 1 – today
Austria – 15a B-VG – today143 (100) 1)at certification
Dust (TZL)[mg/m3N]EU – EN 13229 – today
CR – EN 13229 – today
CR – Act 201/2012 Coll.upon certification and every two years of equipment review 2)
from 1. 1. 2014 to 31. 12. 2017150
from 1. 1. 2018 to 31. 12. 201975
from 1. 1. 202040
EU Regulation 2015/1185 from 1. 1. 202240
Germany – 1. BImSchV Stufe 2 – today40at certification
Austria – 15a B-VG – today50 (35) 1)at certification
Efficiency[%]EU – EN 13229 – today30 %at certification
CR – EN 13229 – today30 %at certification
CR – Act 201/2012 Coll.
EU Regulation 2015/1185 from 1. 1. 202265 % – seasonal energy efficiencyat certification
Germany – 1. BImSchV Stufe 2 – today75 %at certification
Austria – 15a B-VG – today80 %upon certification + revision 2 years 
1) in parentheses are the original values of specific emissions according to 15a B-VG in mg/MJ, the value before the parenthesis represents the calculated concentration in mg/m3N at 13% O2
2) This is not a regular measurement, but only a visual inspection of the device

Source: https://vytapeni.tzb-info.cz